Lab 5.1.4 Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses
Step 1: Access Windows Calculator and determine mode of operation
- From the Start button menu, select All Programs > Accessories, and click on Calculator. An alternate method of starting the Calculator application is to access the Start menu, click on Run, type calc and press Enter. Try both methods.
- Once the Calculator application opens, select the View menu option.
- Which mode [Standard | Scientific] is currently active?
- Select the Standard mode. This is a basic mode for simple calculations. How many mathematical functions are available in this mode?
Ada 6 (Enam) buah fungsi Matematika yang tersedia.
- From the View menu option, select the Scientific Calculator mode.
- How many mathematical functions are available in this mode?
Ada 18 (Delapan Belas) fungsi Matematika yang tersedia.
Step 2: Convert between number systems
- Access Scientific mode. Notice the number system modes available—Hex (Hexadecimal), Dec (Decimal), Oct (Octal), and Bin (Binary).
- Which number system is currently active?
- Which numbers on the number pad are active in Decimal mode?
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 dan 9
Click on the Bin (Binary) mode radio button. Which numbers on the number pad are now active?
0 dan 1
- Why do you think the other numbers are grayed out?
Karena nomor-nomor tersebut tidak dibutuhkan dalam mode-mode yang diaktifkan.
- Click on the Hex (Hexadecimal) mode radio button.
- Which characters on the number pad are now activated?
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A, B, C, D, E, dan F
- Click on the Dec radio button. Using your mouse, click on the number 1 followed by the number 5 on the number pad. The decimal number 15 has now been entered. Click on the Bin radio button.
- What happened to the number 15 listed in the textbox at the top of the window?
Angka 15 pada button Dec berubah menjadi 1111 pada button Bin
- By selecting different modes, numbers are converted from one number system to another. Select Dec mode again. The number in the window converts back to decimal. Select the Hex mode.
- Which hexadecimal character (0 through 9 or A through F) represents decimal 15?
Yaitu Karakter F
- Clear the number 15 in the window. Select Dec mode again. Not only can the mouse be used to enter numbers, but the numerical keypad on the keyboard as well as numbers on the keyboard can also be used. Using the numerical keypad to the right of the ENTER key, type the number 22. Note that if the number does not enter into the calculator, press the Num Lock key to enable the numeric keypad. While the number 22 is showing in the calculator, use the number keys across the top of the keyboard to add a 0 to the number 22 (220 should now be on the calculator). Select the Bin radio button.
- What is the binary equivalent of 220?
- Clear the number 220 in the window. From Binary mode, type in the following binary number: 11001100. Select the Dec radio button.
Jawaban : ekuivalen dengan angka 204 pada button Decimal.
- What is the decimal equivalent to the binary number of 11011100?
Jawaban : Ekuivalen dengan angka 220
o. Convert the following decimal numbers to binary.
p. Convert the following binary numbers to decimal.
Step 3: Convert host IP addresses
- Computer hosts usually have two addresses, an Internet Protocol (IP) address and an Ethernet Media Access Control (MAC) address. For the benefit of humans, the IP address is normally represented as a dotted decimal notation, such as 126.96.36.199. Each of the decimal octets in the address or a mask can be converted to 8 binary bits. Remember that the computer only understands binary bits. If all 4 octets were converted to binary, how many bits would there be?
b. IP addresses are normally shown with four decimal numbers ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by a period. Convert the 4 parts of the IP address 192.168.10.2 to binary.
- Notice in the previous problem how the 10 converted to only four digits and the number 2 convertedv to only two digits. When IP addresses can have any number from 0 to 255 in each position, eight digits are normally used to represent each number. In the previous example, eight digits were needed to convert 192 and 168 to binary, but 10 and 2 did not need as many digits. Normally 0s are added to the left of the digits to have eight digits in binary for each IP address number. The number 10 would be shown as 00001010. Four extra zeros are added to the front of the other four binary digits.
d. On the calculator in Binary mode, enter the digits 00001010 and select the Dec radio button.
e. Which decimal number is equivalent to 00001010? 10
f. Did adding “leading” zeros affect the number any?
g. What would the number 2 (in the previous example) be if you were to make it eight digits?
Step 4: Convert host IP subnet masks
- Subnet masks, such as 255.255.255.0, are also represented as dotted decimal. A subnet mask will always consist of four 8-bit octets, each one represented as a decimal number. With the exception of decimal 0 (all 8 binary zeros) and decimal 255 (all 8 binary ones), each octet will have some number of ones on the left and some number of zeros on the right. Convert the 8 possible decimal subnet octet values to binary.
b. Convert the four parts of the subnet mask 255.255.255.0 to binary.
Step 5: Convert broadcast addresses
- Computer hosts and network devices use broadcast addresses to send messages to all hosts. Convert the following broadcast addresses.
Step 6: Convert IP and MAC addresses for a host
a. Click the Start button, select Run, type cmd, and press Enter. From the command prompt, type ipconfig /all.
b. Make a note of the IP address and physical address (also known as a MAC address).
MAC Address: 00-23-4D-D4-40-19
c. Using the calculator, convert the four numbers contained in the IP address to binary.
d. The MAC or physical address is normally represented as 12 hexadecimal characters, grouped in pairs and separated by dashes (-). Physical addresses on a Windows-based computer are shown in a format of xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx, where each x is a number from 0 to 9 or a letter from a to f. Each of the hex characters in the address can be converted to 4 binary bits which is what the computer understands. If all 12 hex characters were converted to binary, how many bits would there be? 96 bits
e. Convert each of the hexadecimal pairs to binary. For example, if the number CC-12-DE-4A-BD-88-34 was the physical address, convert the hexadecimal number CC to binary (11001100). Then convert the hexadecimal number 12 to binary (00010010) and so on. Be sure to add the leading zeros for a total of 8 binary digits per pair of hex digits.
Step 7: Manipulate powers of 2 to determine the number of hosts on a network
a. Binary numbers use two digits, 0 and 1. When you calculate how many hosts can be on a subnetwork, you use powers of two because binary is being used. As an example, we have a subnet mask that leaves six bits in the host portion of the IP address. In this case, the number of hosts on that network is 2 to the 6th power minus 2 (because you need a number to represent the network and a number that can be used to reach all the hosts—the broadcast address). The number 2 is always used because we are working in binary. The number 6 is the number of bits that are used for the host bits.
b. On the calculator, in Dec mode, input the number 2. Select the x^y key, the key which raises a number to a power. Input the number 6. Click on the = key, press Enter on the keyboard, or press the = key on the keyboard—all give the total. The number 64 appears in the output. To subtract two, click on the minus (-) key and then the 2 key followed by the = key. The number 62 appears in the output. This means 62 hosts could be utilized.
c. Using the previously described process, determine the number of hosts if the following number of bits are used for host bits.
|No. of Bits Used for
|No. of Hosts|
d. Using a similar technique as learned previously, determine what 10 to the 4th power equals. 999999996
Step 8: (Optional) Determine the network number and number of hosts based on subnet mask
a. Given the IP network address of 172.16.203.56 and a subnet mask of 255.255.248.0, determine the network portion of the address and calculate how many hosts can be created from host bits left.
b. Start by converting the 4 octets of the decimal IP address to binary and then convert the decimal subnet mask to binary. Remember to include leading zeros when converting to binary in order to make a total of 8 bits per octet.
|Decimal IP address
and subnet mask
|Binary IP address and subnet mask|
c. Align the 32 bits of the subnet mask to the 32 bits of the IP address and compare them. The bits in the IP address that align with the ones bits in the subnet mask represent the network number. What is the binary and decimal network number for this IP address? Determine the binary address first (include all 32 bits) and then convert it to decimal. Binary network address:
Decimal network address
- How many ones bits are in the subnet mask?
Subnetmask = 2n = 23=8
- How many bits are left for host bits?
Host = 2n-2= 25-2= 30
- How many hosts can be created with the bits left?
Host =2n-2= 211-2= 2046
Step 9: Reflection
- List one other thing for which you might use the Windows Calculator scientific mode. It does not have to be related to networking.
Windows Calculator dapat digunkan untuk operasi Matematika dan operasi Gerbang logika.