Lab 1.2.2 Capturing and Analyzing Network Traffic

Objectives

•  Use Wireshark to capture protocol data packets as they cross the networks.

•  Use Wireshark to analyze protocol data packets from the captured results.

Background / Preparation

This lab focuses on the basic configuration of the Cisco 1841 or comparable routers using Cisco IOS commands. The information in this lab applies to other routers; however, command syntax may vary. The Cisco Catalyst 2960 switch comes preconfigured and only needs to be assigned basic security information before being connected to a network.

The following resources are required:

•  Cisco 2960 switch or other comparable switch

•  Two Cisco 1841 or comparable routers with minimum one serial and one fast Ethernet interface

•  Two Windows-based PCs, one with a terminal emulation program. Use one PC as the host, and use the other as the server.

•  RJ-45-to-DB-9 connector console cable to configure the routers

•  Two straight-through Ethernet cables

•  One crossover Ethernet cable

•  Access to the PC command prompt

•  Access to PC network TCP/IP configuration

Step 1: Connect the routers and configure

a.  Connect the two routers with a serial cable. RouterA will provide the clocking signal between the two routers. Use S0/0/0 on both routers to connect them.

b.  Use RIP as the protocol when configuring both routers. Advertise the appropriate networks on each router.

c.  Connect the Fa0/0 on RouterA with a crossover cable to the server running the Discovery Server Live CD.

d.  RouterB will use a straight-through cable from its Fa0/0 to connect to the switch through the Fa0/1. Configure the routers as shown in the topology diagram above.

 

Step 2: Connect the host to the switch and configure

Step 3: Verify connectivity using ping

a.  To verify that the network is set up successfully, ping from the host to the server.

b.  If the ping is not successful, verify the connections and configurations again. Check to ensure that all cables are correct and that connections are seated. Check the host, server, and router configurations.

c.  Was the ping successful?

Jawaban = ya, tes ping telah berhasil dilakukan ditandai dengan adanya replay from.

Step 4: Launch Wireshark

NOTE: Wireshark may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.wireshark.org and installed on each local host.  If this is not possible, Wireshark may be run from the Discovery Live CD. Check with your instructor to determine which procedure to follow.

a.  If running Wireshark from the local host, double-click on the icon to begin the application and proceed to step d.  If running Wireshark from the Discovery server, proceed to step b.

b. From the K Start menu on the server desktop, choose Internet> Wireshark Network Analyzer.

c.  Launch Wireshark if it is not already open. If prompted for a password, enter discoverit.

d.  To start data capture, go to the Capture menu click Options. The Options dialog provides a range of settings and filters that determine how much data traffic is captured.

e.  Ensure that Wireshark is set to monitor the correct interface. From the Interface drop-down list, select the network adapter in use. For most computers, this will be the connected Ethernet Adapter.

f.  Next, other options can be set. The two options highlighted below are worth examination: Capture packets in promiscuous mode and Enable transport name resolution.

•  Setting Wireshark to capture packets in promiscuous mode

•  Setting Wireshark for network name resolution

• Clicking the Start button starts the data capture process. A message box displays the progress of this process.

•  Create some traffic to be captured. Issue a ping and tracert from the host and watch for routing updates.

•   Clicking the Stop button terminates the capture process. The main screen is displayed.

•  The PDU (or Packet) List pane at the top of the diagram displays a summary of each packet captured. By clicking on packets in this pane, you control what is displayed in the other two panes.

•  The PDU (or Packet) Details pane in the middle of the diagram displays the packet selected in the Packet List Pane in more detail.

•  The PDU (or Packet) Bytes pane at the bottom of the diagram displays the actual data (in hexadecimal form representing the actual binary) from the packet selected in the Packet List pane, and highlights the field selected in the Packet Details pane.

Packet List Pane

Each line in the Packet List pane corresponds to one PDU or packet of the captured data. If you select a line in this pane, additional details are displayed in the Packet Details and Packet Bytes panes. The example above shows the PDUs captured when the ping utility was used and http://www.Wireshark.org was accessed. Packet number 1 is selected in this pane. Packet Details Pane The Packet Details pane shows the current packet (selected in the Packet List pane) in a more detailed form. This pane shows the protocols and protocol fields of the selected packet. The protocols and fields of the packet are displayed using a tree, which can be expanded and collapsed.  Packet Bytes Pane The Packet Bytes pane shows the data of the current packet (selected in the Packet List pane) in what is known as “hexdump” style. In this lab, this pane will not be examined in detail. However, when a more in-depth analysis is required, this displayed information is useful for examining the binary values and content of PDUs. The information captured for the data PDUs can be saved in a file. This file can then be opened in Wireshark for future analysis without the need to recapture the same data traffic again. The information displayed when a capture file is opened is the same as the original capture. When closing a data capture screen or exiting Wireshark, you are prompted to save the captured PDUs.

Step 5: Ping PDU Capture

a. Launch Wireshark.

b.  Set the Capture Options as described in Step 4 and start the capture process.

c.  From the command line of the host, ping the IP address of the server on the other end of the lab topology. In this case, ping the Discovery Server Live CD using the command ping 172.17.1.1.

d.  After receiving the successful replies to the ping in the command-line window, stop the packet capture.

Step 6: Examine the Packet List pane

a.  The Packet List pane on Wireshark should now look similar to this:

b.  Look at the packets listed; we are interested in the packets numbered 3 through 10.

c.  Locate the equivalent packets on the packet list on your computer. The numbers may be different.

d.  From the Wireshark Packet List, answer the following questions:

 

1)  What protocol is used by ping?

Jawaban = protocol yang digunakan adalah TCP

2)  What is the full protocol name?

Jawaban = Inthernet Protocol,  Src : 192.168.174.14 (192.168.174.14) Dst : ( 192.168.172.1)

3)  What are the names of the two ping messages? Replay and Request

4)  Are the listed source and destination IP addresses what you expected?

5) Why?

Jawaban = ya tercantum alamat IP situs yang diharapkan, karena wireshark sudah tersedia program packet list pane dan packet details pane.

 

Step 7: Examine the Packet Details pane

a.  Select (highlight) the first echo request packet on the list with the mouse. The Packet Detail pane will now display something similar to this:

b.  Click each of the four + to expand the information. The packet Detail Pane will now be similar to:

c.  Spend some time scrolling through this information. At this stage of the course, you may not fully understand the information displayed. Make a note of the information you do recognize.

d.  Locate the two different types of Source and Destination.

e.  Select a line in the Packets Detail pane (middle pane). Notice that all or part of the information in the Packet Bytes pane also becomes highlighted.

f.  Go to the File menu and click Close.

g. Click Continue without Saving when this message box appears.

Step 8: Perform an FTP PDU Capture

a.  Assuming that Wireshark is still running from the previous steps, start packet capture by clicking the Start option on the Wireshark Capture menu.

b.  At the command line on your host, enter ftp 172.17.1.1. When the connection is established, enter anonymous as the user.

c.  When successfully logged in, enter get  /pub/Discovery_1/document_1 and press the Enter key. Note that there is a space after get. This command will start downloading the file from the ftp server. The output will look similar to:

C:\> ftp 172.17.1.1

Connected to 172.17.1.1

220 Welcome to The CCNA-Discovery FTP service.

ftp> get /pub/Discovery_1/document_1

200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV.

150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for pub/Discovery_1/document_1

<73 bytes>.

226 File send OK.

ftp: 73 bytes received in 0.03Seconds 2.35Kbytes/sec.

d.  When the file download is complete, enter quit.

ftp> quit

221 Goodbye.

C:\>

e.  Stop the PDU capture in Wireshark.

Step9: Examine the Packet List pane

a.  Increase the size of the Wireshark Packet List pane and scroll through the PDUs listed.

b.  Locate and note those PDUs associated with the file download. These will be the PDUs from the Layer 4 protocol TCP and the Layer 7 protocol FTP.

c.  Identify the three groups of PDUs associated with the file transfer. The first group is associated with the connection phase and logging into the server. List examples of messages exchanged in this phase.

d.  Locate and list examples of messages exchanged in the second phase that is the actual download request and the data transfer.

e.  The third group of PDUs relate to logging out and breaking the connection. List examples of messages exchanged during this process.

f.  Locate recurring TCP exchanges throughout the FTP process. What feature of TCP does this indicate?

 

 

Step 10: Examine Packet Details and Packet Byte panes

a.  Select (highlight) a packet on the list associated with the first phase of the FTP process. View the packet details in the Packet Details pane.

b.  What are the protocols encapsulated in the frame?

c.  Highlight the packets containing the username and password. Examine the highlighted portion in the Packet Byte pane. What does this say about the security of this FTP login process?

NOTE: SDM Enabled Routers – If the startup-config file is erased on an SDM enabled router, SDM will no longer come up by default when the router is restarted. It will be necessary to build a basic router configuration using IOS commands. Contact your instructor if necessary. Connect the Host to attach to Fast Ethernet switch port Fa0/2. Configure the host as shown in the topology diagram above. If this feature is not checked, only PDUs destined for this computer will be captured. If this feature is checked, all PDUs destined for this computer and all those detected by the computer NIC on the same network segment (i.e., those that “pass by” the NIC but are not destined for the computer) are captured. NOTE: As you use different intermediary devices (hubs, switches, routers) to connect end devices on a network, you will experience different Wireshark results. This option allows you to control whether or not Wireshark translates network addresses found in PDUs into names. Although this is a useful feature, the name resolution process may add extra PDUs to your captured data, perhaps distorting the analysis. There are also a number of other capture filtering and process settings available on this screen. As data PDUs are captured, the types and number are indicated in the message box. The examples show the capture of a ping process and then accessing a web page. This main display window of Wireshark has three panes. Clicking Continue without Saving closes the file or exits Wireshark without saving the displayed captured data.

As you can see, the details for each section and protocol can be expanded further.  Why are there two types?

Jawaban = karena masing masing memiliki fungsi tertentu, misalnya meskipun sama sama menampilkan alamat IP address akan tetapi yang pertama berfungsi sebagai koneksi dengan alamat tujuan beserta protocol yang digunakan, sedangkan yang kedua berfungsi sebagai penerjemah dari koneksi ping alamat yang dituju.

What protocols are in the Ethernet frame?

Jawaban HTTP

For example, if the second line (+ Ethernet II) is highlighted in the Details pane, the Bytes pane now highlights the corresponding values. This example shows the particular binary values that represent that information in the PDU. At this point in the course, it is not necessary to understand this information in detail.

NOTE: Capture Options do not have to be set if continuing from previous steps of this lab.

If there was no VLAN file, this message is displayed:

 

The responding line prompt is: Press Enter to confirm. The response should be: Verify that the VLAN configuration was deleted in Step b using the show vlan command. If previous VLAN configuration information (other than the default management VLAN 1) is still present, you must power cycle the switch (hardware restart) instead of issuing the reload command. To power cycle the switch, remove the power cord from the back of the switch or unplug it, and then plug it back in. If the VLAN information was successfully deleted in Step b, go to Step e and restart the switch using the reload command.

NOTE: This step is not necessary if the switch was restarted using the power cycle method.

The responding line prompt is:

The responding line prompt is:

The first line of the response is:

After the switch has reloaded, the line prompt is:

The responding line prompt is:

The responding line prompt is:

The response is:

The responding line prompt is:

The responding line prompt is:

In the first line of the response is:

After the router has reloaded the line prompt is:

The responding line prompt is:

The router is ready for the assigned lab to be performed. This is the interface that a PC will connect to using a browser to bring up SDM. The PC IP address should be set to 10.10.10.2  255.255.255.248.

NOTE: An SDM router other than the 1841 may require connection to a different port to access SDM.

Replace <username> and <password> with the username and password that you want to configure.

d.  Highlight a packet associated with the second phase. From any pane, locate the packet containing

the filename. What is the filename that was downloaded?

e.  When finished, close the Wireshark file and continue without saving.

Step 11: Perform an HTTP PDU Capture

a.  Start packet capture. Assuming that Wireshark is still running from the previous steps, start packet

capture by clicking the Start option on the Wireshark Capture menu.

b.  Launch a web browser on the computer that is running Wireshark.

c.  Enter the IP address of the Discovery Server 172.17.1.1 in the address box. When the webpage has

fully downloaded, stop the Wireshark packet capture.

Step 12: Examine the Packet List pane

a.  Increase the size of the Wireshark Packet List pane and scroll through the PDUs listed.

b.  Locate and identify the TCP and HTTP packets associated with the webpage download.

c.  Note the similarity between this message exchange and the FTP exchange.

Step 13: Examine the Packet Details and Bytes panes

a.  In the Packet List pane, highlight an HTTP packet that has the notation (text/html) in the Info

column.

b.  In the Packet Details pane, click the + next to Line-based text data: html. When this information expands, what is displayed?

c.  Examine the highlighted portion of the Byte pane. This portion shows the HTML data carried by the packet.

d.  When finished, close the Wireshark file and continue without saving.

Step 14: Analyze the capture

a.  Look at the capture below and examine the various protocols being used in this network.

b.  List the protocols used on the network shown above.

c.  Examine the capture below.

d.  What two protocols are listed in this capture that was not listed in the previous capture?

e.  Compare the first capture in Step 14 with the second capture. What is one noticeable difference

between the HTTP and HTTPS protocols?

Step 15: Reflection

How are the OSI and TCP/IP Layer models reflected in the captured network data provided by Wireshark?

Jawaban =

Pada wireshark disemulasikan proses pengiriman paket data sepertti halnya pada osi layer, akan tetapi pada wireshark dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, paket pertama menetukan secara umum alamat ip address dalam pengiriman data dan menggunakan protocol apa, pada paket ayng kedua jenis nya lebih merinci  kepada alamat yang akan digunakan sebagai pengirim dan penerima, dan pada paket ketiga bit bit data dikalkulasikan sehingga data bisa disimpan dalam bentuk file.

Erasing and Reloading the Switch For the majority of the labs in CCNA Discovery, it is necessary to start with an unconfigured switch. Using a switch with an existing configuration may produce unpredictable results. The following instructions prepare the switch prior to performing the lab so that previous configuration options do not interfere. Instructions are provided for the 2900 and 2950 series switches.

a.  Enter into privileged EXEC mode by typing enable. If prompted for a password, enter class (if that does not work, ask the instructor).

Switch>enable

b.  Remove the VLAN database information file.

Switch#delete flash:vlan.dat

Delete filename [vlan.dat]?[Enter]

Delete flash:vlan.dat? [confirm] [Enter]

%Error deleting flash:vlan.dat (No such file or directory)

c.  Remove the switch startup configuration file from NVRAM.

Switch#erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue? [confirm]

Erase of nvram: complete

d.  Check that VLAN information was deleted.

e.  Restart the software using the reload command.

1)  At the privileged EXEC mode, enter the reload command:

Switch# reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]:

2) Type n, and then press Enter.

Proceed with reload? [confirm] [Enter]

Reload requested by console.

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

3) Type n, and then press Enter.

Press RETURN to get started! [Enter]

 

Erasing and Reloading the Router

a.  Enter the privileged EXEC mode by typing enable.

Router>enable

c.  In privileged EXEC mode, enter the erase startup-config command.

Router#erase startup-config

Erasing the nvram filesystem will remove all files! Continue?

[confirm]

d. Press Enter to confirm.

Erase of nvram: complete

e.  In privileged EXEC mode, enter the reload command.

Router# reload

System configuration has been modified. Save? [yes/no]:

f. Type n and then press Enter.

 

Proceed with reload? [confirm]

g. Press Enter to confirm.

Reload requested by console.

Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]:

h. Type n and then press Enter.

Press RETURN to get started!

i. Press Enter.

SDM Router Basic IOS Configuration to Bring Up SDM

If the startup-config is erased in an SDM router, SDM will no longer come up by default when the router is

restarted. It will be necessary to build a basic config as follows. Further details regarding the setup and use of

SDM are can be found in the SDM Quick Start Guide:

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/secursw/ps5318/products_quick_start09186a0080511c89.html#wp44788

a.  Set the router Fa0/0 IP address.

 

Router(config)#interface Fa0/0

Router(config-if)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.248

Router(config-if)#no shutdown

 

f.  Enable the router’s HTTP/HTTPS server, using the following Cisco IOS commands:

Router(config)#ip http server

Router(config)#ip http secure-server

Router(config)#ip http authentication local

 

g.  Create a user account with privilege level 15 (enable privileges).

Router(config)#username <username> privilege 15 password 0 <password>

 

h.  Configure SSH and Telnet for local login and privilege level 15.

Router(config)#line vty 0 4

Router(config-line)#privilege level 15

Router(config-line)#login local

Router(config-line)#transport input telnet

Router(config-line)#transport input telnet ssh

Router(config-line)#exit